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Papers presented at conferences

Use of Continuous Assessment to Promote Quality ODL delivery and Prevent Attrition in OUT Programmes 2

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Use of Continuous Assessment to Promote Quality ODL delivery and Prevent Attrition in OUT Programmes 2.docx

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A model for the conceptual learning of mathematics in a technologically enhanced learning environment for first-year prospective mathematics teachers

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Over the past few years the conceptual mathematical knowledge of mathematics teachers has become a reason for concern (Hill, Schilling & Ball, 2004:11). The fragmented and insufficient nature of the mathematical knowledge of student teachers and in-service teachers, as facilitators of learning and key figures in the transformation of mathematics teaching and learning (Mapolelo, 1999:715), have serious implications for teacher training. Indications are that maths students who are products of the existing school system are not adequately prepared for the scientific and technological community of the 21st century (Matthee & Roode, 1998:1). In order to facilitate conceptual understanding teachers themselves must possess profound mathematical knowledge.

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A model for the conceptual learning of mathematics in a technologically enhanced learning environment for first-year prospective mathematics teachers Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Over the past few years the conceptual mathematical knowledge of mathematics teachers has become a reason for concern (Hill, Schilling & Ball, 2004:11). The fragmented and insufficient nature of the mathematical knowledge of student teachers and in-service teachers, as facilitators of learning and key figures in the transformation of mathematics teaching and learning (Mapolelo, 1999:715), have serious implications for teacher training. Indications are that maths students who are products of the existing school system are not adequately prepared for the scientific and technological community of the 21st century (Matthee & Roode, 1998:1). In order to facilitate conceptual understanding teachers themselves must possess profound mathematical knowledge.

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Addressing quality education in Western Uganda

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This paper explains the importance of quality education and the requisite factors that contribute to good quality education. It also explains the fate of quality education in Uganda indicating the efforts put in to remedy the situation and discusses the situation as it is now especially in the Western Uganda( challenges and dilemma)

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African condition and changing goals of science and technology education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The paper explores the evolution of science in Africa against the perceived policy emphasis of role of science and technology (S&T) in development. The deployment of science and technology in the school curricula, and the question of relevance are debated with guiding questions such as: Who and what shapes science and technology discourse in school science? What frame of S&T best promotes development in Africa? The presentation examines a range of factors, issues and arguments in science and technology education in Africa, and proposes possible future trajectories of science and technology education.

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African condition and changing goals of science and technology education Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The paper explores the evolution of science in Africa against the perceived policy emphasis of role of science and technology (S&T) in development. The deployment of science and technology in the school curricula, and the question of relevance are debated with guiding questions such as: Who and what shapes science and technology discourse in school science? What frame of S&T best promotes development in Africa? The presentation examines a range of factors, issues and arguments in science and technology education in Africa, and proposes possible future trajectories of science and technology education.

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Alternative teacher training and curriculum strategies

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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An Assessment of the Quality of Print Medium in Distance Learning for Undergraduate Programmes in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The Institute of Distance Learning-KNUST offers courses through distance education. The mode of delivery of DL programmes in KNUST is predominantly by print medium. Two print materials, EE 287 Circuit Theory and GE 183 Principles of Land Surveying are among the twenty-five print materials used to facilitate learning in Computer Engineering and Building Technology programmes. Though current print media used by learners in the undergraduate programmes has contributed to learning by students, however, they have provided challenges to learners. Learners have reported on gaps in the learning materials thus making utilisation difficult. In order to identify and meet the needs and grievances of students relating to the suitability of course materials, the study sought to assess the quality of two print media for undergraduate studies in Computer Engineering and Building Technology programmes in KNUST.

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Analysis of eLearning and Distance Learning Polices in Zambia

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The Institute of Distance Learning-KNUST offers courses through distance education. The mode of delivery of DL programmes in KNUST is predominantly by print medium. Two print materials, EE 287 Circuit Theory and GE 183 Principles of Land Surveying are among the twenty-five print materials used to facilitate learning in Computer Engineering and Building Technology programmes. Though current print media used by learners in the undergraduate programmes has contributed to learning by students, however, they have provided challenges to learners. Learners have reported on gaps in the learning materials thus making utilisation difficult. In order to identify and meet the needs and grievances of students relating to the suitability of course materials, the study sought to assess the quality of two print media for undergraduate studies in Computer Engineering and Building Technology programmes in KNUST.

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Cell phones and student support

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. "College officials around the country find that a growing number of students are missing important messages about deadlines, class cancellations, and events sent to them by e-mail because, well, the messages are sent to them by e-mail."

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Challenges and Possibilities of Ensuring Quality Teacher Education in a Changing Continent: The Role of ODL, ICTs and OERs

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Conceptualisation of a “new” teacher

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. In times of change, learners (children, addition mine) inherit the earth, while the learned find themselves beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists

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Contextual issues impacting on teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The main focus of this research paper is to explore some contextual issues that have left their impacts upon education, specifically teacher education in Japan and Egypt. Following a clarification of the key concepts, two main forces (religion and history) that shaped both societies were discussed. The differences and similarities between teacher education in Egypt and Japan were highlighted in light of contextual issues. Data for this study were collected through reviewing relevant documents in both Arabic and English in order to pinpoint how contextual issues affected certain elements in teacher education in both countries. Qualitative data specifically on Egypt were utilized to have an understanding of how pre-service and in-service teachers perceive some current status of the teaching profession.

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Contextual issues impacting on teacher education Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The main focus of this research paper is to explore some contextual issues that have left their impacts upon education, specifically teacher education in Japan and Egypt. Following a clarification of the key concepts, two main forces (religion and history) that shaped both societies were discussed. The differences and similarities between teacher education in Egypt and Japan were highlighted in light of contextual issues. Data for this study were collected through reviewing relevant documents in both Arabic and English in order to pinpoint how contextual issues affected certain elements in teacher education in both countries. Qualitative data specifically on Egypt were utilized to have an understanding of how pre-service and in-service teachers perceive some current status of the teaching profession.

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Creating an environment for the “new” teacher

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The environment for creating a new teacher needs positive legal regulatory frameworks made by a well governed state. The environment for creating a new teacher needs positive legal regulatory frameworks made by a well governed state

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Cutting-edge programme delivery – a South African case study

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Dealing with pedagogy and mathematical content

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. In this paper I draw on a research in describing and discussing the pedagogy, mathematical content and the reality of teachers’ instructional situation- a case study. New styles of teaching have emerged over decades. The recitation still dominates the field of mathematics instruction, as it does for most subjects. More varied pedagogical repertoires are regularly advocated and are beginning to take root; however, these can be characterized as a broad and low trend toward the teacher increasingly assuming the role of facilitator of student learning. No one can learn for someone else, so the teacher creates an environment in which students are able to advance their own knowledge. The methodology involved in this study was largely qualitative for which an exploratory approach was used. The respondents (fifteen learners, five tutors and guardians respectively) were selected according to a purposive non- probability sample method; semi-structured interview with a schedule for each of the respondents (guardians) was used. An inductive form of reasoning was used and concepts, insights and understanding developed from patterns in the data. Responses (likert format questions) that were quantified were transformed into tables where percentages were computed to determine the degree of emphasis. It is hoped that this study will make a worthwhile contribution to the field of Mathematics teaching.

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Dealing with pedagogy and mathematical content Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. In this paper I draw on a research in describing and discussing the pedagogy, mathematical content and the reality of teachers’ instructional situation- a case study. New styles of teaching have emerged over decades. The recitation still dominates the field of mathematics instruction, as it does for most subjects. More varied pedagogical repertoires are regularly advocated and are beginning to take root; however, these can be characterized as a broad and low trend toward the teacher increasingly assuming the role of facilitator of student learning. No one can learn for someone else, so the teacher creates an environment in which students are able to advance their own knowledge. The methodology involved in this study was largely qualitative for which an exploratory approach was used. The respondents (fifteen learners, five tutors and guardians respectively) were selected according to a purposive non- probability sample method; semi-structured interview with a schedule for each of the respondents (guardians) was used. An inductive form of reasoning was used and concepts, insights and understanding developed from patterns in the data. Responses (likert format questions) that were quantified were transformed into tables where percentages were computed to determine the degree of emphasis. It is hoped that this study will make a worthwhile contribution to the field of Mathematics teaching.

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Designing a positive health behaviour framework towards sustainable learning environments for fresh¬men

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. In this study I am designing a framework to enhance self‐regulated learning towards the creation of sustainable learning environment for college students. Such a framework is necessary if their academic performance is to improve and to be sustainable. In order to systematise the discussion of the above in this proposal I will indicate what inspired the study in the background. Then the literature will be reviewed to formulate appropriate constructs to make sense of the empirical data to be collected and to locate the study conceptually. The methodology section then describes how empirical data will be collected and analysed in the context of the research question, aim, objectives and literature

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Dilemma of use of multimedia in the Bachelor of education course

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

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Distance education and teacher development – the new way forward: Perspectives from the University of Cape Coast

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Distance education may simply be defined as a process of education that involves independent study or open learning based on self-instructional material. According to Hall and Manett (1996), a major feature of distance education is that distance and time separate the teacher from the student. The UNESCO (2002), however looks at the phenomenon as “an educational process in which a significant proportion of the teaching is conducted by someone removed in space and or time from the learners

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Distance education and teacher development – the new way forward: Perspectives from the University of Cape Coast Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Distance education may simply be defined as a process of education that involves independent study or open learning based on self-instructional material. According to Hall and Manett (1996), a major feature of distance education is that distance and time separate the teacher from the student. The UNESCO (2002), however looks at the phenomenon as “an educational process in which a significant proportion of the teaching is conducted by someone removed in space and or time from the learners” (p).

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Distance education and teacher training in Africa DETA 2007: Summary of the conference

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teacher education and training must take into account the changing needs and demands on the teachers and adequately prepare teachers for this changing role

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Distance education and the development of teacher competencies: A case study of the Bachelor of Education external degree programme of Makerere University

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. According to the Teachers’ Code of Conduct for Uganda’s teachers, ‘a teacher’s chief responsibility is towards child/learner…and the teacher shall guide each child/learner…in order to develop the child/learner in body, soul, character and personality (Ssekamwa 2001:82). Teacher education programmes in Uganda are therefore expected to prepare teachers to fulfil this role so the competencies that teachers acquire during their training should be the kind that will enable them do so (Obwoya Kinyera, Auma- Okumu, et.al 2002:14).

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Distance education and the development of teacher competencies: A case study of the Bachelor of Education external degree programme of Makerere University

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. According to the Teachers’ Code of Conduct for Uganda’s teachers, ‘a teacher’s chief responsibility is towards child/learner…and the teacher shall guide each child/learner…in order to develop the child/learner in body, soul, character and personality (Ssekamwa 2001:82). Teacher education programmes in Uganda are therefore expected to prepare teachers to fulfil this role so the competencies that teachers acquire during their training should be the kind that will enable them do so (Obwoya Kinyera, Auma- Okumu, et.al 2002:14).

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Does a girl friendly approach of the teaching of School science exist

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The concern about girls’ lower level of performance may be based on the fact that they (girls) must also attain the requisite grades in order for them to be admitted into the mathematics and science related courses and hence the professions.

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E-learning in the 21st century: Open and distance education in south-east Nigeria: teacher educators' competencies

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Education is and will remain the basic catalyst that will bring about the development of the individual in particular and the society in general, thus Federal Government of Nigeria through the National Policy on Education reiterate “that education is an instrument for excellence through which sustainable national development can be achieved” (FRN 2004:4). To attain sustainability for national development, measures have been put in place both at the national level and the world at large on ways to encourage access to education.

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E-ready or not? Conditions to get started with e-learning in primary colleges of education.

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This is part of a fictional story created by lecturers of Charles Lwanga College of Education (CLCE) in a training on how to start e-learning. Different stories were written by lecturers of CLCE during a workshop in which they started to explore what e-learning is. The stories are the fundaments for a scenario based approach, in which students with different backgrounds, interests and levels of understanding in 2012 are supposed to learn through the principles of e-learning; ‘just-intime’ and ‘just-for-you’.

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E-ready or not? Conditions to get started with e-learning in primary colleges of education. Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This is part of a fictional story created by lecturers of Charles Lwanga College of Education (CLCE) in a training on how to start e-learning. Different stories were written by lecturers of CLCE during a workshop in which they started to explore what e-learning is. The stories are the fundaments for a scenario based approach, in which students with different backgrounds, interests and levels of understanding in 2012 are supposed to learn through the principles of e-learning; ‘just-intime’ and ‘just-for-you’.

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Educating the new generation of teachers as constructivist practitioners – But will the model fit a distance mode delivery?

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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Education initiatives for a changing Africa: African Virtual University

A Pan African Intergovernmental Organization. Established by charter with the mandate of significantly increasing access to quality higher education and training through the innovative use of information communication technologies

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Education initiatives for a changing Africa: SADC ODL Project

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Education initiatives for a changing Africa: SAIDE

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Effective assessment and evaluation strategies for distance education

In the past, the quality of educational programs has largely been defined by the popularity of the programs and the size of the institution. The rapid growth of distance education programs has generated public interest in the quality these programs.There are the skeptics who think distance learning does not deliver a quality of education similar to the traditional classroom face-to- face setting.Several literatures have addressed the parameters and themes that address quality, but there are few discussions on the metrics and strategies of accessing distance learning programs in Africa.

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Effective supervision as a challenge in technical and vocational education delivery: Ensuring a quality teaching/learning environment and feedback mechanism

The Federal Government of Nigeria is conscious of the importance of education for personal and national economic development that in section 12: 107 (c) of the National Policy on Education (2004) set out as one of her objectives, to ensure quality control through regular and continuous supervision of instructional and other educational services. The issue at hand now is to investigate if the supervision of teaching is effectively carried out. A critical issue that has frequently confronted educational supervisors is how to better prepare teachers to face the challenges of the classroom.

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Effective supervision as a challenge in technical and vocational education delivery: Ensuring a quality teaching/learning environment and feedback mechanism Presentation

The Federal Government of Nigeria is conscious of the importance of education for personal and national economic development that in section 12: 107 (c) of the National Policy on Education (2004) set out as one of her objectives, to ensure quality control through regular and continuous supervision of instructional and other educational services. The issue at hand now is to investigate if the supervision of teaching is effectively carried out. A critical issue that has frequently confronted educational supervisors is how to better prepare teachers to face the challenges of the classroom.

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Effectiveness of teacher advisory centres (TACs) in teacher professional development in Nairobi County, Kenya

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Teacher Advisory Centres (TACs) were established in the 1970s for Kenya primary school teachers’ professional development. However teachers in primary schools face challenges in curriculum implementation. There are reports on poor pupil learning outcomes. Research has found that teachers who participate in sustained curriculum based teacher professional development activities reported changes in practice resulting in turn to high student learning achievement. The problem of this study was that TACs tended to be ineffective in teacher professional development.

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Effectiveness of teacher advisory centres (TACs) in teacher professional development in Nairobi County, Kenya Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Teacher Advisory Centres (TACs) were established in the 1970s for Kenya primary school teachers’ professional development. However teachers in primary schools face challenges in curriculum implementation. There are reports on poor pupil learning outcomes. Research has found that teachers who participate in sustained curriculum based teacher professional development activities reported changes in practice resulting in turn to high student learning achievement. The problem of this study was that TACs tended to be ineffective in teacher professional development.

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Emerging areas for research development in teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teacher Behaviour and Classroom observations- Developing observation schedules- identifying and clustering skills

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Empowering the underprivileged through DE: The case of Catholic University of Mozambique's Centre for DE

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Enhancing school leadership: Meeting the challenges of HIV and AIDS

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Over time the role of school leadership in South African schools has become increasingly complex. School leaders, often with very little support or training, are required to respond to and then implement a series of sophisticated education policies. While it has become impossible to ignore the impact of HIV and AIDS on the lives of teachers and learners, school leaders also have to respond to the socio-economic circumstances in their school communities. Research conducted by the South African Institute for Distance Education showed that many school leaders began intuitively to respond to these challenges by creating networks of support for learners around their schools. The research also showed that while the form these networks took unfolded in different ways, many of them resulted in schools implementing learner support programmes around nutrition, aftercare and counselling. While in some schools these initiatives were ad hoc, examples were also found of schools where the approach to implementation and management of these support programmes was more systematic and thus more sustainable. In contrast, this research also showed that while many school leaders were able to respond to learner needs, there was very little evidence to suggest that schools were equally able to respond to the needs of their teachers. Through presenting an analysis of the support strategies, this paper starts to provide an interesting and informative picture of how the landscape of school leadership1 has begun to evolve in some South African schools.

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Exploring access to teacher education through distance for students with disabilities

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Exploring students’ understanding of values and moral reasoning

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This paper discusses research conducted among distance education students of the University of Pretoria in 2009. The paper argues that being human means having the capacity to make choices and to act in accordance with the choices made. The choices people make are based on their own personal and socially constructed values, assumptions and beliefs. This personal set of values, assumptions and beliefs informs our understanding of what is morally right and morally wrong and of the type of conduct that would be just and ethical. Moral reasoning is thus an individual or collective reasoning about what, morally, one ought to do. Morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason - that is, to do what there are the best reasons for doing. In moral reasoning it is assumed that the person having to take a moral decision will give equal weight to the interests of each individual who will be affected by what one does. This line of reasoning suggests that there must be certain moral principles that should guide a decision. The aim of the research is to explore students’ thinking and argumentation on moral dilemmas with a view of understanding how students, who are all practising teachers, take moral decisions. Although the study will run over a number of years, some preliminary findings of a survey undertaken in June 2009 are discussed indicating some of the initial trends emerging from the data.

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Exploring students’ understanding of values and moral reasoning presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This paper discusses research conducted among distance education students of the University of Pretoria in 2009. The paper argues that being human means having the capacity to make choices and to act in accordance with the choices made. The choices people make are based on their own personal and socially constructed values, assumptions and beliefs. This personal set of values, assumptions and beliefs informs our understanding of what is morally right and morally wrong and of the type of conduct that would be just and ethical. Moral reasoning is thus an individual or collective reasoning about what, morally, one ought to do. Morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason - that is, to do what there are the best reasons for doing. In moral reasoning it is assumed that the person having to take a moral decision will give equal weight to the interests of each individual who will be affected by what one does. This line of reasoning suggests that there must be certain moral principles that should guide a decision. The aim of the research is to explore students’ thinking and argumentation on moral dilemmas with a view of understanding how students, who are all practising teachers, take moral decisions. Although the study will run over a number of years, some preliminary findings of a survey undertaken in June 2009 are discussed indicating some of the initial trends emerging from the data.

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Facilitation of open distance learning programmes at the school of Continuing Teacher Education at the North-West University

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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Foreign language in African science classrooms: Perspectives on and approaches to language use during teaching

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. In spite of UNESCO’s assertion that educating learners in a language that they understand best is a tenet of good practice (UNESCO, 2007), Africa remains the only continent in the world where formal education is generally conducted in instructional languages that are foreign to most learners and their teachers. The continent has in this regard been balkanised into Anglophone, Francophone and Luzophone states, to refer to the European (former colonial) languages, English, French and Portuguese respectively. In the special case of Tanzania, the balkanisation may be referred to as a ‘Swahiliphone’, for the special reason that Swahili, the mandatory language of primary school education but - though unofficially - also used widely in secondary and higher education, is neither a local language nor the first one to all students and their teachers. Swahili is therefore also a foreign language to most students and teachers in Tanzania; it however is an African language. A common argument has been that all the foreign languages of European origin were retained at independence as the official as well as classroom instruction languages for economic and political reasons. It is also an acceptable argument that the retention of the languages must have been dictated by circumstances that were prevailing at the time in respective African countries.

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Gats and its implications for teacher education in Africa

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Gender issues in teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. In Uganda, the notions that males excel in mathematics, science, and technology and that females excel in the arts are two of many beliefs and cultural influences that are passed down through generations. The dynamic is all the more powerful in that; adults may not realize they are holding these beliefs and acting on them. Subtle and unintended messages can create the idea among girls and boys that there are fields they cannot be successful in because of their sex. Children reflect and reinforce this attitude through their peer interactions.

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How E-learning within teacher education might develop a case study of the ELATE project

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This paper will explore how e-learning within teacher education might develop synergies which make a contribution to closing that gap in learning resource provisions in secondary schools in Africa. In particular the presentation will outline the aims and objectives of a new E-learning and Teacher Education (ELATE) Project. This is a joint venture between Makerere University School of Education and The Open University in the UK, and is being funded by the British Council. The broad aims of the project are to develop an enhanced e-Learning module within initial teacher education at Makerere and to establish ongoing research on the impact of e- Learning within both teacher education and schools in Uganda.

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How E-learning within teacher education might develop a case study of the ELATE project Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This paper will explore how e-learning within teacher education might develop synergies which make a contribution to closing that gap in learning resource provisions in secondary schools in Africa. In particular the presentation will outline the aims and objectives of a new E-learning and Teacher Education (ELATE) Project. This is a joint venture between Makerere University School of Education and The Open University in the UK, and is being funded by the British Council. The broad aims of the project are to develop an enhanced e-Learning module within initial teacher education at Makerere and to establish ongoing research on the impact of e- Learning within both teacher education and schools in Uganda.

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Impact of professional education programmes on higher education teachers at the University of Ibadan

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Implementation of the South African National Curriculum: The educators’ perspectives

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitude held by educators in the implementation process of the South African national curriculum; Outcomes- Based Education system (OBE), since inception until present day. From the inquiry by The Department of Education (DoE), it was shown that educators are still struggling to implement the new curriculum. In order to get the views of the educators which are of great importance, a survey was conducted. This was achieved by administering a questionnaire to a random sample of schools to 60 educators. Of this number 11 are male and 49 are female.

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In-service science teacher’s attitude towards information

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The study aimed at investigating in-service science teachers’ attitudes towards ICT at the University of Limpopo, South Africa

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Inclusive education in Ghana: What are the levers for change?

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The policy guiding the principle and practice of inclusion was first adopted at the World Conference held in Salamanca, Spain in June 1994. Now regarded as the Salamanca Statement (Unesco, 1994), the statement has drawn global attention to access and quality in delivery of special needs education. Considering the importance this could have, it was later emphasised at the World Education Forum Dakar, Senegal in 2000 and supported by the UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities proclaiming participation and equality for all.

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Inclusive education in Ghana: What are the levers for change? Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The policy guiding the principle and practice of inclusion was first adopted at the World Conference held in Salamanca, Spain in June 1994. Now regarded as the Salamanca Statement (Unesco, 1994), the statement has drawn global attention to access and quality in delivery of special needs education. Considering the importance this could have, it was later emphasised at the World Education Forum Dakar, Senegal in 2000 and supported by the UN Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities proclaiming participation and equality for all.

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Integrating computer technology in teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The paper highlights some of the concerns among developing countries to introduce computer technology in teacher education and the nations’ classrooms in particular. The arguments in favour hinge on improving quality of education through improvement in quality of teaching and learning processes through the use of computer technology. The paper discusses the use of computer technology in exploring the constructivist dimensions of the content of science and mathematics curricula and helping the development of new curricula with a constructivist or social constructivist orientation.

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Integrating gender into the core course of teacher education in public Universities in Uganda

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teacher education is so far the most important and known way of preparing change agent in the school setting. How they are prepared in terms of the courses they are exposed to, pertaining to the values, beliefs, attitudes and practices significantly influence how they will in turn prepare citizens who will be charged with various responsibilities of societal development. Therefore, teachers who have been well trained would in turn be effective in their teaching, guiding and providing role models to both boys and girls.

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Integrating gender into the core course of teacher education in public Universities in Uganda Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teacher education is so far the most important and known way of preparing change agent in the school setting. How they are prepared in terms of the courses they are exposed to, pertaining to the values, beliefs, attitudes and practices significantly influence how they will in turn prepare citizens who will be charged with various responsibilities of societal development. Therefore, teachers who have been well trained would in turn be effective in their teaching, guiding and providing role models to both boys and girls.

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Investing in leadership, governance and management to improve quality education: A challenge of Africa

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. One of the challenges facing African education to pursue the United Nations Education For a All (EFA) and to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is inadequate financial resources to improve p the quality of education, and achieve equity and equality of outcomes especially school education, While funding is undoubtedly key, sometimes in, and by itself is not a guarantee to achieve equity and equality of outcomes.

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Issues and challenges on education in Africa – the need for a new teacher: Case of University of Nairobi’s initiatives in meeting the challenges

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This paper considers Teachers’ Training as critical in making the teacher capable of handling the teaching tasks and challenges which include imparting knowledge, skills and moulding the attitudes of their learners in a changing Educational environment. Their quality would depend on the nature of training they are given that would enable them cope with the demands in their work situation. At times they would require retraining or inservicing to enable them cope with the changing demands in the subject content and pedagogical skills or higher enrolment that would call for more teachers or innovative ways of handling large classes. This paper outlines the challenges to teachers in Kenya and how they have been addressed through the initiatives in Teachers Education undertaken by the University of Nairobi over the years.

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Issues and challenges on education in Africa – the need for a new teacher: Case of University of Nairobi’s initiatives in meeting the challenges Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This paper considers Teachers’ Training as critical in making the teacher capable of handling the teaching tasks and challenges which include imparting knowledge, skills and moulding the attitudes of their learners in a changing Educational environment. Their quality would depend on the nature of training they are given that would enable them cope with the demands in their work situation. At times they would require retraining or inservicing to enable them cope with the changing demands in the subject content and pedagogical skills or higher enrolment that would call for more teachers or innovative ways of handling large classes. This paper outlines the challenges to teachers in Kenya and how they have been addressed through the initiatives in Teachers Education undertaken by the University of Nairobi over the years.

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Justifying the use of a multimodal approach to the delivery of teacher training in a newly industrialised context

“While ICTs cannot address all of [Africa's] problems, they can do much to place Africa on a firmer industrial footing and strengthen the continent's human resources, with training that leads to sustainable livelihoods.”

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Language of Education in South Africa

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The language of education is a debated policy and management issue in the current discourse on education in South Africa. Central to this debate is the problem of learner competence in the use of English as the principal medium of instruction, as well as the quality of teaching and learning achievable The current national policy treats the issue of language medium with great circumspection. Section 29 of the National Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) provides for one’s right to receive education in one’s chosen language. But the education-specific policy on language lays emphasis on teaching, use and promotion of all official languages, through what is described as additive multi-lingualism.

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Language of Education in South Africa Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The language of education is a debated policy and management issue in the current discourse on education in South Africa. Central to this debate is the problem of learner competence in the use of English as the principal medium of instruction, as well as the quality of teaching and learning achievable The current national policy treats the issue of language medium with great circumspection. Section 29 of the National Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) provides for one’s right to receive education in one’s chosen language. But the education-specific policy on language lays emphasis on teaching, use and promotion of all official languages, through what is described as additive multi-lingualism.

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Language Teacher Education in Nigeria and Knowledge Base in the 21st Century: Models, Challenges and A Proposal

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. General studies, pedagogy, instruction, curriculum and subject mastery of teachers are inextricably connected in teacher education. As an agency of ideation and socialization, education of teachers cannot be divorced from the pressing issue of development, sustainability and social change. Teacher preparation programme therefore serves to provide the trainees with adequate societal orientations, values, ethics, attitudes, skills and creativity etc. Potentially, thus, the role of teacher education ranges from initiation to adaptation in both normative and institutional dimensions. This paper is concerned with the issue of models and challenges of language teacher education and knowledge base in a developing country like Nigeria.

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Large class teaching in Uganda, implications for E-learning

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This paper draws on findings of a study within the framework of the Africa-Asia University Dialogue for Basic Education Development (A-A Dialogue) project that explores the impact of university-ministry-school partnership on the quality of basic education provision. It draws on research undertaken in 20 primary schools in Uganda with the purpose of identifying practical suggestions and examples of good practice in the teaching of large classes. Findings of the study indicated that Ugandan primary teachers had devised strategies to cope with the large classes, including team teaching, active whole-class teaching, group work, and school-based professional development. However, it was discovered that these needed further development if they were to lead to life-long learning accessible to all learners. The paper thus examines how a new E-Learning and Teacher Education (ELATE) project being undertaken jointly by Makerere University School of Education and the Open University with support from the British Council can be used to bridge the gap in large class teaching. The ELATE project that involves creating web and CD-ROM based elearning materials does not only have the potential to improve teachers’ existing strategies using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) but will also act as the channel for dissemination of good practice to the wider teaching and learning community.

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Learning from success: Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Learning from success: How can we generalise from successful / innovative education initiatives?

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Learning from Success: Universidade Catolica de Mozambique

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Learning from Success: University of Dar-es-Salaam

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Major challenges as drawbacks of teacher development: The way forward for the Nigerian teacher in basic education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. To make a new teacher requires a paradigm shift from what constitutes the package of the old concept of the teacher, to what should constitute the package of the concept of the envisaged new teacher, given the plethora of knowledge explosion in the province of globalization. Teaching generally, both in Nigeria and elsewhere is regarded as a special profession characterized by deep-rooted historical antecedents. It has its peculiar challenges. The challenges notwithstanding one consolation is very remarkable: It has been operating on the increamental model of policy making. It graduated from a level of voluntary service without any legal instrument to the present level of a pensionable profession in the public service.

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Making sense of the experiences of mentor teachers in traditional teacher education: What lessons can distance education learn from the practice?

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The trend towards school-based teacher preparation in initial teacher training during the 1980s has contributed to the popular use of the term “mentoring” to signify the appointment of experienced teachers to undertake the supervision of student teachers during their teaching practice in schools (McIntyre, Hagger & Wilkin, 1993; Wilkin, 1992).

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Making sense of the experiences of mentor teachers in traditional teacher education: What lessons can distance education learn from the practice? Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The trend towards school-based teacher preparation in initial teacher training during the 1980s has contributed to the popular use of the term “mentoring” to signify the appointment of experienced teachers to undertake the supervision of student teachers during their teaching practice in schools (McIntyre, Hagger & Wilkin, 1993; Wilkin, 1992).

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Management of teacher education in Nigeria, Issues and problems and remedies

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The importance of teachers and the roles they play in the educative process are central to basic education, particularly in third world countries, there may be close substitutes for teacher-roles in the form of teaching machines with programmed instruction (Balogun 1988) but in third world countries such as Nigeria, teachers undoubtedly remain the managers of knowledge. Therefore, teacher education in Nigeria is, and should be, the foundation of quality and relevance of education at all levels.

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Mapping the educational knowledge for the continuous support of teachers and educational staff

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Mapping the educational knowledge for the continuous support of teachers and educational staff presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Massification and quality in tertiary education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Tertiary education according to the provisions of the National Policy on Education is that education given after-secondary education, in universities, colleges of education and polytechnics in Nigeria. These institutions are owned by either the Federal or State Governments, corporate bodies or individuals. Some Federal bodies have been appointed to approve, supervise and accredit courses in these institutions irrespective of their proprietorship. For the universities, the National Universities Commission (NUC) is in charge while in the Polytechnics and Colleges of Education, the National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) are in charge of moderating academic programmes respectively.

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Measuring teachers' ICT pedagogical skills to address computer use for ODL

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Models of teacher education. The case of Cameroon

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This paper examines models of teacher education in Cameroon by reflecting on the different models that have existed, it is important to theorize about the nature of schooling that influenced how teachers are educated and trained. This type of information is intricately tied to the kinds of intellectual and executive attributes required for quality output both for the learner and the teacher.

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Modern distance education versus traditional orthodoxy: The case of the University of Nairobi

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Kenyan Universities are going through very rapid changes in the delivery of their programmes arising mainly from the reduction of capitation from the central government. Evening classes, outreach programmes and distance education are all now accepted as ways of reducing the financial crunch as many eager Kenyans are willing to pay for what they thought they would never achieve.

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Modern distance education versus traditional orthodoxy: The case of the University of Nairobi

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Kenyan Universities are going through very rapid changes in the delivery of their programmes arising mainly from the reduction of capitation from the central government. Evening classes, outreach programmes and distance education are all now accepted as ways of reducing the financial crunch as many eager Kenyans are willing to pay for what they thought they would never achieve.

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Myth and reality behind the university axiological stances

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The question or problem of axiology (values) is of pivotal concern to philosophers of education. It is problematic because it is manifested, implied, not tangible and not necessarily experiential. It crops up everywhere in the University education system; in and out side pedagogical arenas. (Kneller 1971; Nsereko-Munakukaama 1997 and Kigongo 1994)). Ignoring values transmitted in the different universities would imply ignoring who the university student is (his/her character and world out look) Under normal (ideal ) circumstances values transmitted in a specific educational institution are implied ( edified ) in the mission, vision or purported philosophy behind the institution. Unfortunately these in many universities are not known by most salient stake-holders( Muwagga 2006), probably this could be the partial explanation for the axiological disfunctionality in the behavior of some university students as revealed in The New Vision October 2001 pg. 29 vol.

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National ODL Policy Development for Namibia

This paper covers the background and context of ODL in Namibia, the rationale and development of the ODL policy, and detailes the policy development process. It highlights organisational options for ODL institutional structures and lessons learned during the process.

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OERs in education: COL's experience

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Open and Distance Learning and the Creation of a Knowledge Society in Zimbabwe

The presentation focuses on Open and Distance learning and the creation of a knowledge society in Zimbabwe and addresses the following issues-:

  • What is a Knowledge society?
  • How do people join this knowledge society?
  • Open and distance learning as a national strategy of enhancing the knowledge society
  • What tools does ODL require in enhancing the knowledge society?
  • What challenges should we address as ODL practitioners to enhance the creation of Knowledge societies?

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OPTIMISING OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING FOR TEACHER EFFECTIVENESS IN UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, AKOKA, NIGERIA

The world needs better teachers and more teachers. The Dakar conference revealed that there were still more than 100 million children out of school: they need teachers as the world moves towards the 2015 target of education for all. And we need to raise the skills of the existing 60 million teachers, too many of whom are untrained and unqualified. Beyond that, the skills and knowledge all teachers need are no longer fixed and familiar targets but moving ones. Teachers therefore need more opportunities than ever before to go on learning throughout their careers. One of the ways of strengthening the teaching profession is to use distance education or open and distance learning.

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Osei, C.K. and Saah, A.A.

The Institute of Distance Learning-KNUST offers courses through distance education. The mode of delivery of DL programmes in KNUST is predominantly by print medium. Two print materials, EE 287 Circuit Theory and GE 183 Principles of Land Surveying are among the twenty-five print materials used to facilitate learning in Computer Engineering and Building Technology programmes. Though current print media used by learners in the undergraduate programmes has contributed to learning by students, however, they have provided challenges to learners. Learners have reported on gaps in the learning materials thus making utilisation difficult. In order to identify and meet the needs and grievances of students relating to the suitability of course materials, the study sought to assess the quality of two print media for undergraduate studies in Computer Engineering and Building Technology programmes in KNUST. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from students offering Computer Engineering and Building Technology programmes. The results of the study provide ample evidence to show that instructional materials assessed are about appropriate and useful. Hence there is room for improving current print materials used by IDL. It also reveals the lack of female participation in the two courses and suggests an improvement of the situation through gender awareness and promotion activities at all levels of DE programming.

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Pedagodies 'of' and pedagogies 'in' distance learning materials for teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. All teacher education materials designers constitute ‘ideal’or ‘preferred’ readers (Hall, 1980)both as students and as teachers. Even if the materials are read resistantly, they are read within a particular semantic frame because all texts are ‘potentials of a quite specific kind’ (Bezemer& Kress, 2008).

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Pedagodies 'of' and pedagogies 'in' distance learning materials for teacher education Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. All teacher education materials designers constitute ‘ideal’or ‘preferred’ readers (Hall, 1980)both as students and as teachers. Even if the materials are read resistantly, they are read within a particular semantic frame because all texts are ‘potentials of a quite specific kind’ (Bezemer& Kress, 2008).

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Problems of distance education: The implications for teacher education in Nigeria

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Education is a highly valued Instrument for National development and the Philosophy and Objectives of education in Nigeria is stipulated in the National Policy on Education. This has been the bedrock of any educational process in the country. In open and distance education, the mode of teaching is the one in which the learners are removed in space and time from the teacher. The goals of distance education in Nigeria are; provide access to quality education and equity in educational opportunities for those who otherwise would have been denied, meet special needs of employers by mounting special certificate courses for their employees at their workplace, encourage internationalization especially of tertiary education curricula, ameliorate the effect of internal and external brain drain in tertiary institutions by utilizing Nigerian experts as teachers regardless of their locations of places or work.

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Processes, roles and responsibilities: Writers’ experiences of curriculum development in a distance education programme

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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Professional ethics in teaching: The training and development challenge

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The meaning of ‘profession’ can be traced to those in religion. Ukpo (2005) noted that to Priest, Pastors, Reverend Brothers and Sisters, it means the act of professing and a declaration of loyalty. The Oxford English Dictionary (1998) defines profession as: “a paid occupation, especially one that involves prolonged training and a formal qualification” (p.1480). To Encyclopaedia of Education (1971), a profession in the generic sense is described as a field of economic activity requiring academic preparation above the high school level while Halmos (1971) opines that, from ideological sense, the term profession is used as a bargaining position in an occupation’s efforts to improve its status, rewards, and conditions. According to Halliday (1999), attempts have been made to solve the problem of definition using different approaches such as functionalist approach, interractionist approach, Foucauldian approach and division of labour approach.

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Quality assurance in Mathematics teacher education via open and distance learning

The production and retention of Mathematics teaches has been an issue of concern for Mathematics educators in Nigeria. Lassa (2000), quoted in Eraikhuemen & Eraikhuemen (2010) opined that the recruitment and retention of competent teachers have been one of the greatest problems of teacher education in Nigeria and in other parts of the world. To buttress this fact and will particular reference to Mathematics teacher education, the study of Eraikhuemen & Eraikhuemen revealed that between 3 and 13% of the teacher trainees involved in the study were not interested in teaching, they will only teach as a last resort when they complete the training programme. In the same vein, Eraikhuemen & Oteze (2008) explained that majority of the students studying Mathematics in the University are not interested in the subject. According to them, the students did not make a choice of Mathematics as a course of study, but are studying it as a last resort.

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Religious and moral education principles and practices, an inspiration for teacher education curriculum

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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Research agenda for teacher education in Africa

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Research questions arising from the DETA agenda

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Response to the need of qualifying teachers through distance education: The case of Mozambique

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The objective of this paper is to present UP experience in the implementation of an inservice teacher training project for General Secondary Education (ESG) teachers through the modality of Distance Education (DE). This is a pilot project that is being implemented in two provinces of Mozambique namely: Cabo Delgado and Manica. The first is located in the North and the second in the Centre of Mozambique.

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Response to the need of qualifying teachers through distance education: The case of Mozambique Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. The objective of this paper is to present UP experience in the implementation of an inservice teacher training project for General Secondary Education (ESG) teachers through the modality of Distance Education (DE). This is a pilot project that is being implemented in two provinces of Mozambique namely: Cabo Delgado and Manica. The first is located in the North and the second in the Centre of Mozambique.

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Revolutionising early childhood education as a vehicle for ensuring the highest quality education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Nigeria is the eighth most populous country in the world, and even conservative estimates conclude that more than 20% of the world’s black population lives in Nigeria (Country Profile-Nigeria, 2008). Nigeria has diverse ethnic, religious and cultural backgrounds. The major ethnic groups in the country are the Hausa/Fulani in the North, the Yoruba in the South-West, Igbo in the South-East and Ijaw in the South-South. In-between these big ethnic groups are some 250 other smaller but very important ethnic groups speaking more than 300 languages and dialects. (NMEC, 2008).The recent population of Nigeria was estimated at about 140 million and the age structure breakdown shows that 0-14years: 40.9% (male 32, 476,681/female 31,064,539); the figure may not include children delivered in regions with difficult terrain and by traditional birth attendants in rural-rural areas. The age structure of a population determines the wheel of its investment, but this is not the reality in Nigeria as education receives low funding. The quality of basic education in Nigeria is extremely poor, leading to low demand and unacceptably low academic performance. There are 30 million primary school-aged children in the country, of whom about seven million are not enrolled in school. Of those currently in primary school, less than one third will attend junior secondary schools and even fewer will proceed to senior secondary. Nigeria has a massive number of out-of-school children and young adults with limited literacy and numeracy skills who have little hope of ever joining the formal workforce (USAID, 2011).Using these statistics of age structure and present poor quality report, it is very clear that Nigeria needs investment in the education of her children. The question remains at what stage; the study is proposing 0-3years, which is the very foundation of educational process and general referred to as critical period due to their continuing brain development. Unfortunately majority of them are presently left in the hands of untrained caregivers/teachers due to increased demand of changing society.

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Revolutionising early childhood education as a vehicle for ensuring the highest quality education Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Nigeria is the eighth most populous country in the world, and even conservative estimates conclude that more than 20% of the world’s black population lives in Nigeria (Country Profile-Nigeria, 2008). Nigeria has diverse ethnic, religious and cultural backgrounds. The major ethnic groups in the country are the Hausa/Fulani in the North, the Yoruba in the South-West, Igbo in the South-East and Ijaw in the South-South. In-between these big ethnic groups are some 250 other smaller but very important ethnic groups speaking more than 300 languages and dialects. (NMEC, 2008).The recent population of Nigeria was estimated at about 140 million and the age structure breakdown shows that 0-14years: 40.9% (male 32, 476,681/female 31,064,539); the figure may not include children delivered in regions with difficult terrain and by traditional birth attendants in rural-rural areas. The age structure of a population determines the wheel of its investment, but this is not the reality in Nigeria as education receives low funding. The quality of basic education in Nigeria is extremely poor, leading to low demand and unacceptably low academic performance. There are 30 million primary school-aged children in the country, of whom about seven million are not enrolled in school. Of those currently in primary school, less than one third will attend junior secondary schools and even fewer will proceed to senior secondary. Nigeria has a massive number of out-of-school children and young adults with limited literacy and numeracy skills who have little hope of ever joining the formal workforce (USAID, 2011).Using these statistics of age structure and present poor quality report, it is very clear that Nigeria needs investment in the education of her children. The question remains at what stage; the study is proposing 0-3years, which is the very foundation of educational process and general referred to as critical period due to their continuing brain development. Unfortunately majority of them are presently left in the hands of untrained caregivers/teachers due to increased demand of changing society.

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School administrator’s views on handling large classes in primary schools in Uganda

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This paper presents part of a research on teaching in large classes in primary schools in Uganda. The purpose of the study was to investigate the administrators, teachers and pupils’ views and practices on teaching large classes. Twenty school administrators (14 males and 6 females) from two districts in central Uganda participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and documentary analysis. The data were analysed using quasi-grounded theory approach involving the constant comparative method. The findings of the study show that schools face such challenges as understaffing, management of class discipline and heavy marking loads. The administrators have in place plans that include equipping teachers with new skills through inservice programmes and employment of more teachers for dealing with large classes. In light of the findings, this study highlights the need to modify practical teacher practices, teacher preparation and educational research to address teacher preparation programs in teacher education and calls for policy changes on lessons duration and more action research with teachers teaching in large classes is suggested to inform decision making.

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Shifting the paradigm: The use of multiple mode assessment strategies in distance teacher training programme for inclusivity

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. In a distance education situation learning occurs where the lecturer and the student are usually removed from each other in space and time (Yates &Tilson, 2000:7). In other words a significant proportion of education [that is, teaching, learning and assessment] is conducted where the lecturer and the student are separated from each other permanently or most of the time. In Perraton’s (2000:13) view open learning is an organisational activity based on the use of teaching materials, in which the constraints on study are minimised either in terms of access, or of time and place, pace, methods of study or any combination of these. The umbrella term ‘ open and distance learning’ is currently used to cover educational approaches where teacher trainees are taught and assessed at their schools, provided with learning resources to enable them to qualify without attending college in person or open up new opportunities for keeping up to date no matter where or when they want to study (Perraton, 2001:3). Assessment

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Shifting the paradigm: The use of multiple mode assessment strategies in distance teacher training programme for inclusivity Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. In a distance education situation learning occurs where the lecturer and the student are usually removed from each other in space and time (Yates &Tilson, 2000:7). In other words a significant proportion of education [that is, teaching, learning and assessment] is conducted where the lecturer and the student are separated from each other permanently or most of the time. In Perraton’s (2000:13) view open learning is an organisational activity based on the use of teaching materials, in which the constraints on study are minimised either in terms of access, or of time and place, pace, methods of study or any combination of these. The umbrella term ‘ open and distance learning’ is currently used to cover educational approaches where teacher trainees are taught and assessed at their schools, provided with learning resources to enable them to qualify without attending college in person or open up new opportunities for keeping up to date no matter where or when they want to study (Perraton, 2001:3). Assessment

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Student teaching internship a critical component of initial teacher training in Ghana

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Evaluations of Ghana’s teacher education programmes revealed that they were inadequately preparing teachers who will be effective in the classroom. (Ministry of Education, 1993; The Republic of Ghana, 2002; Lewin & Stuart, 2003).

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Students’ perception of course tutors’ effectiveness on the delivery mode in DE: The case of the University of Cape Coast

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Distance education (DE) has emerged as a tool for widening access to higher education for all manner of people in the country. Recognising the need to make tertiary education highly accessible to the Ghanaian population, the Government of Ghana proposed over a decade ago to promote DE in the country. The DE programmes in Ghana has given opportunity to mainly teachers and other public and private workers to engage in work and study. This in no doubt is contributing to manpower development of the workforce in the country.

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Tasting their own medicine: Experiences of ODL teachers undergoing upgrading through IGNOU

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This study focused on the experiences of ODL teachers undergoing an upgrading Post Graduate Diploma in Distance Education Programme with Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). Specifically the study sought to find out how the programme delivery by an ODL mega- university was perceived and experienced by the ODL practitioners in Botswana and Lesotho

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Teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. National reviews are a specialised type of accreditation exercise focusing on existing learning programmes in a particular disciplinary/subject area. This re-accreditation is carried out using specific criteria developed by specialists, peers, and commented on by stakeholders and institutions offering those programmes.

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Teacher education in the face of challenges posed by HIV and AIDS

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Many teachers are confronted with large numbers of learners made vulnerable by HIV and AIDS. Often-times, these learners need much more than just pedagogical interventions. Most require additional support to cope with discrimination, abuse, rejection and lost childhoods, as they begin to assume the responsibilities of their deceased parents at an ever-increasing younger age

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Teacher education policy in Africa: Purpose and impact

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Policies of teacher education deal with what the relevant education authorities must be doing or putting in place, on a continual basis to enhance the quality of teacher education.

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Teacher education through distance education in Africa: The challenge of developing practice

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This paper explores the current and future potential of the use of distance education methods for teacher development drawing upon many years of engagement with Ministries of Education and Higher Education Institutions involved with teacher development in south, southern and central Africa. The paper argues that it is appropriate and desirable for distance education methods to be used in teacher development programmes but argues that many current practices need to be questioned in light of postmodern perspectives and an increasingly globalised society. The use of distance education for teacher development should not be dictated by economic arguments alone but also, or perhaps rather, informed by concerns about the nature and quality of the education and training provided and how this manifests itself in improved quality of learning in classrooms.

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Teacher education through distance education in Africa: The challenge of developing practice Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. This paper explores the current and future potential of the use of distance education methods for teacher development drawing upon many years of engagement with Ministries of Education and Higher Education Institutions involved with teacher development in south, southern and central Africa. The paper argues that it is appropriate and desirable for distance education methods to be used in teacher development programmes but argues that many current practices need to be questioned in light of postmodern perspectives and an increasingly globalised society. The use of distance education for teacher development should not be dictated by economic arguments alone but also, or perhaps rather, informed by concerns about the nature and quality of the education and training provided and how this manifests itself in improved quality of learning in classrooms.

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Teacher education: What counts as quality teacher education in/for a changing Africa

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Teachers are a key enabling factor in improving the quality of education. It is our belief that it is not enough for teachers to be good or satisfactory. Anything short of outstanding is a disservice to our institutions and especially to the learners.

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Teacher initiated student-peer assessment

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Thus, this investigation examined how teacher-initiated/guided-student-peerassessment can facilitate learning in large classes, such that the teacher can use teacher-initiated/guided student peerassessment to enhance student learning and the subsequent achievement in junior secondary school Mathematics and English Language.

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Teacher quality: Kenya focus

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Quality teachers greatly contribute to students’ achievement and they are the system's principal resource. Teacher quality is critical in determination of quality of education which is a country’s engine of development. The teachers’ effect and influence on a child’s learning is much greater than the effect of school organization, leadership and financial conditions as teachers are an important means of passing on knowledge, skills, values and attitudes required for democracy, citizenship, intercultural dialogue and personal development (European Union 2010).The teacher effect is positively correlated to pupil achievement as together with the parents teachers 2 design the destiny of a child.

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Teacher quality: Kenya focus Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Quality teachers greatly contribute to students’ achievement and they are the system's principal resource. Teacher quality is critical in determination of quality of education which is a country’s engine of development. The teachers’ effect and influence on a child’s learning is much greater than the effect of school organization, leadership and financial conditions as teachers are an important means of passing on knowledge, skills, values and attitudes required for democracy, citizenship, intercultural dialogue and personal development (European Union 2010).The teacher effect is positively correlated to pupil achievement as together with the parents teachers 2 design the destiny of a child.

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Teachers perception on teaching large classes in Nigerian secondary schools: Implications for qualitative educational planning

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Among the problems facing the Nigeria educational system is large and poorly resourced classes. This has become a reality that educators must see as a challenge and must face squarely. The social -demand for formal education in Nigeria resulted into an upsurge increase in school enrolment with a dramatic increase in class size thereby resulting into high teacher – pupil rates (Onwu, 1998)Kolo& Ojo 2005),Ijaiya, 1999). Class size is a big factor in determining the attainment of educational goals and objectives. The recommended students population in a single classroom should not exceed 1: 30 or at most a maximum of 35(teacher: student ratio; 1:35) (UNESCO, 2000, FGN, 2006).In view of this principle which is generally affirmed by many people, one might expect strict adherence to this. But statistics from Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of Education shows that as at 1994, there were 360,782 teachers and 18,296,202 pupil (teacher- pupil ratio of about 1:50) in 39,221 primary schools. Likewise public secondary schools experienced this upsurge. As at 2005, students’ enrolment in Nigeria public secondary schools were 5, 422,611 and 122,477 teachers given teacher – pupil ratio of about 1: 45. And this keeps escalating annually.

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Teachers' experiences of caring school leadership in the South African context

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. The management/leadership style of the principal is one of the factors that determines the climate in the school and influences the educator’s experience of the quality of his/her working life.

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Teaching and learning culture of a second language

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The paper concerns with the contribution and integration of culture in the second or foreign language education. More specifically, some consideration will be given to the why and how to teach culture. Teaching a foreign language is not the same as giving a lecture on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions, but mainly integrates, or should integrate, some cultural elements, which are matted with the target language itself.

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Teaching and learning culture of a second language

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The paper concerns with the contribution and integration of culture in the second or foreign language education. More specifically, some consideration will be given to the why and how to teach culture. Teaching a foreign language is not the same as giving a lecture on syntactic structures or learning new vocabulary and expressions, but mainly integrates, or should integrate, some cultural elements, which are matted with the target language itself.

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Teaching educators to teach values

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Literature would seem to suggest that higher education, among other things, is about values (Payne, 2002; Atwell, 1996; Waller, 1991; Hastings Centre, 1980). Some authors, like Kirschenbaum (1994) and the Hastings Centre (1980), suggest that the higher education concern about values had atrophied over last 100 years under the pressure from the scientific and research hegemony that saw teaching as conveying value-free theories, facts and modes of enquiry. Many academics argue, often convincingly, that values have no place in the higher education classroom, and that teaching practices must be oriented, as much as possible, towards disinterestedness, allowing students to make their own uncoerced choices (Joy, 1996) regarding how they should conduct their lives. This, I belief, is impossible as all human interactions are saturated with messages of what people value or not and we are constantly, overtly or covertly through our total behaviour, sending value messages. Moreover, a pedagogy divested of moral purpose is empty and meaningless (cf. Nieuwenhuis, 2007; Joy, 1996; Payne, 2002; Kirschenbaum, 1994).

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Teaching educators to teach values Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Literature would seem to suggest that higher education, among other things, is about values (Payne, 2002; Atwell, 1996; Waller, 1991; Hastings Centre, 1980). Some authors, like Kirschenbaum (1994) and the Hastings Centre (1980), suggest that the higher education concern about values had atrophied over last 100 years under the pressure from the scientific and research hegemony that saw teaching as conveying value-free theories, facts and modes of enquiry. Many academics argue, often convincingly, that values have no place in the higher education classroom, and that teaching practices must be oriented, as much as possible, towards disinterestedness, allowing students to make their own uncoerced choices (Joy, 1996) regarding how they should conduct their lives. This, I belief, is impossible as all human interactions are saturated with messages of what people value or not and we are constantly, overtly or covertly through our total behaviour, sending value messages. Moreover, a pedagogy divested of moral purpose is empty and meaningless (cf. Nieuwenhuis, 2007; Joy, 1996; Payne, 2002; Kirschenbaum, 1994).

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Teaching in a rural-based African university: What students want

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. The African rural based universities are faced with a significant number of students who find it difficult, if not impossible to cope with university work. In an attempt to meet the needs of students, a number of South African universities established intervention teaching programmes as early as 1980 in South Africa as described by Adams (2009); du Plessis (2006); Agar (2007).

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Teaching large classes with limited resources

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Teaching multicultural and multilingual classes at an institution of higher learning

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Multicultural education can be viewed as a progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings, failings and discriminatory practices in education. It is grounded in ideals of social justice, education equity and a dedication to facilitating educational experiences in which all students reach their full potential as learners and as socially aware and active human beings, locally, nationally and globally. Norvis (2002) believes that although most higher education institutions have changed their admission and recruitment policy, they still do not reflect the demographics of South African society. Multicultural education is not a concept that lulls the mind, but rather one that prompts debate. It has significantly impacted on higher education in South Africa. Its proponents have argued that education that excludes the experience and contributions of other diverse cultural group, robs its entire society of the treasures endowed in the multicultural nature of that society.

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Teaching multicultural and multilingual classes at an institution of higher learning Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Multicultural education can be viewed as a progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and addresses current shortcomings, failings and discriminatory practices in education. It is grounded in ideals of social justice, education equity and a dedication to facilitating educational experiences in which all students reach their full potential as learners and as socially aware and active human beings, locally, nationally and globally. Norvis (2002) believes that although most higher education institutions have changed their admission and recruitment policy, they still do not reflect the demographics of South African society. Multicultural education is not a concept that lulls the mind, but rather one that prompts debate. It has significantly impacted on higher education in South Africa. Its proponents have argued that education that excludes the experience and contributions of other diverse cultural group, robs its entire society of the treasures endowed in the multicultural nature of that society.

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Teaching reading: Student teachers and the schooling context in Uganda

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teaching student teachers to teach children to read is a complex task in a convoluted field of teacher education. Perry and Power (2004) suggest that fieldwork is a useful mechanism for student teachers to construct practical knowledge in their process of learning to teach and Szabo, Scott and Yellin (2002) recommend that teacher educators should examine their teaching practices and the process of learning to teach. Furthermore, Szabo et al. (2002) highlight the need to develop the student teachers’ understanding of the relationship between theory and practice. In this paper we tackle this challenge, which has inspired and liberated us as a collegial team with a common goal as teacher educators: to understand our professional field, and as language practitioners, to understand reading teacher education.

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Teaching reading: Student teachers and the schooling context in Uganda Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teaching student teachers to teach children to read is a complex task in a convoluted field of teacher education. Perry and Power (2004) suggest that fieldwork is a useful mechanism for student teachers to construct practical knowledge in their process of learning to teach and Szabo, Scott and Yellin (2002) recommend that teacher educators should examine their teaching practices and the process of learning to teach. Furthermore, Szabo et al. (2002) highlight the need to develop the student teachers’ understanding of the relationship between theory and practice. In this paper we tackle this challenge, which has inspired and liberated us as a collegial team with a common goal as teacher educators: to understand our professional field, and as language practitioners, to understand reading teacher education.

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Teaching to Achieve Social Studies values: A case of re-education of teachers

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Social Studies as a discipline involves experiences which deal with the problems of human relationship in the school and the larger community. It also includes human relationships with other culture. These experiences and their rightful application form the values which control the social relations of each individual. It is believed that the school should teach the children to learn their roles as leaders, parents, group members, members in the family, in the community and so on. The teacher should also adapt the lesson to the environment of the children. The children should be informed about the society in which they live. Considering National Policy on Education FGN (2004), the 2nd national educational aims and objectives of Nigeria stated inter alia “the inculcation of the right type of values and attitudes for the survival of the individual and the Nigeria society”.

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Teaching values in education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

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Teaching values in education in schools

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teaching values to children first requires determining which values contribute to positive social behaviours. We cannot teach values without first creating a value based learning environment. There is a strong need for value education at all levels of education but it cant be over emphasized, especially in the present society. According to J .E Anderson (The Individual and Environment) we have educated and treated in relation to three worlds that make up the complete environment-the natural world, the social world and the value world .Obliviously all the natural and physical sciences belong to the first, all the humanistic studies to the second and all the ethical and religious to the third.

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Teaching values in education in schools Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teaching values to children first requires determining which values contribute to positive social behaviours. We cannot teach values without first creating a value based learning environment. There is a strong need for value education at all levels of education but it cant be over emphasized, especially in the present society. According to J .E Anderson (The Individual and Environment) we have educated and treated in relation to three worlds that make up the complete environment-the natural world, the social world and the value world .Obliviously all the natural and physical sciences belong to the first, all the humanistic studies to the second and all the ethical and religious to the third.

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Teaching values in education Kigali Institute of Education Faculty of Education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This topic is to be handled in the wider perspective of the theme of this conference: “Addressing the Quality and Number of Teachers in Africa”. My presentation is based on my musings as a Teacher Educator in Rwanda. These are basically reflections on how to improve the quality and increase the quantity of teachers in that African country; Rwanda. Hopefully, my own reflections will motivate the audience, especially those from Africa, to think about their own countries. Your reactions will, in effect, be a valuable contribution to my manuscript which is still in the process of making.

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Teaching values in education Kigali Institute of Education Faculty of Education Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This topic is to be handled in the wider perspective of the theme of this conference: “Addressing the Quality and Number of Teachers in Africa”. My presentation is based on my musings as a Teacher Educator in Rwanda. These are basically reflections on how to improve the quality and increase the quantity of teachers in that African country; Rwanda. Hopefully, my own reflections will motivate the audience, especially those from Africa, to think about their own countries. Your reactions will, in effect, be a valuable contribution to my manuscript which is still in the process of making.

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TESSA secondary science: Addressing the challenges facing science teacher education in sub-Saharan Africa

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. In recent years there have been considerable advances towards the achievement of Millenium Goal 2: universal primary education by 2015 (UNDP, 2011). Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) that previously educated around 50% of primary aged children are now achieving 70-80%. This is creating considerable pressure at secondary level with a significant shortage of secondary school places in many countries and a shortage of secondary teachers (Verspoor, 2008). It has been suggested that secondary education in SSA does not contribute as effectively to human capability development as it should as student achievement is low. Indeed, strong performance in maths and science in particular, is associated with economic growth.

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The 21st century student teacher and the use of OERs

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Presently, teaching seems to have moved from the classroom to the real world via albeit the virtual world. The challenge is that as technology advances, at a very fast rate, and the learning process becomes increasingly information-rich, the role of the teacher has to undergo a major change to integrate these technologies in the teaching and learning environment. It is evident in the literature that new technologies have challenged the way in which education is delivered, but newer technologies are now challenging how people process information and what they expect to be able to do with that information. Cognitive psychologists, for example the work of the Vanderbilt Cognition and Technology Group have discussed how people process information differently and its effect on learning (Scardamalia & Bereiter, 2003). Teachers are being called upon to find out what students do and can do with technology outside the classroom in order to inform their teaching. Open educational resources (OER), which are teaching, learning and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license and permits their free use or re-purposing by others.

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The challenge of educational funding in Nigeria as predictive dimension of teacher effectiveness: Time series budget analysis

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.Education is concerned with the transmission of knowledge and acquisition of skills that will enable the individual not only to survive in the society, but also to contribute to the development of the society (Bell-Gam, 2003). Ulilig (1999) also opined that one of the essential preconditions for the development and transformation of a national economy is the factor of education in the broadest sense, this statement was affirmed as a clear manifestation of the importance of education (Osunde & Bell- Gam, 2003). Hence the functionality of our educational systems, to a large extent, depends on adequate funding of all the levels of education by the governments (local, state & federal) and other stakeholders.

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The contribution of distance education in meeting the challenges in teacher education in Africa: The Ghanaian experience

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. With the view to achieving the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals, the Government of Ghana has put in place certain interventions to promote accelerated growth in the education and health sectors. The introduction of the capitation grant and the school feeding programme, for instance, are to ensure that by the year 2015, children everywhere in Ghana, boys and girls alike will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

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The effects of outdoor activities and gender on students' environmental attitude to Biology

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Environmental education is generally concerned with the development of motivation necessary to make informed decisions about environmental issues. It is a learning process that increases the people’s awareness about the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible action (UNESCO’s Tbilisi Declaration, 1978).

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The impact of a professional education programme on higher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Environmental education is generally concerned with the development of motivation necessary to make informed decisions about environmental issues. It is a learning process that increases the people’s awareness about the environment and associated challenges, develops the necessary skills and expertise to address the challenges, and fosters attitudes, motivations and commitments to make informed decisions and take responsible action (UNESCO’s Tbilisi Declaration, 1978).

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The impact of tokens reinforcement on the learning of speech in the severely mentally retarded pupils

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Government policy on Special Education, which is in fact compatible with the International opinion (UN Standard Rules, 1993), encourages equalisation of opportunities for children with disabilities, including those with mental retardation. Equalisation of opportunities is a concept that centres on moral issues such as the principle of equal rights. The principle of equal rights implies that the needs of each and every child with mental retardation are of equal importance and that these rights must be taken into consideration in planning of educational needs of the child as this ensures that every child is given an equal opportunity to participate actively in the learning process.

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The impact of tokens reinforcement on the learning of speech in the severely mentally retarded pupils Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Government policy on Special Education, which is in fact compatible with the International opinion (UN Standard Rules, 1993), encourages equalisation of opportunities for children with disabilities, including those with mental retardation. Equalisation of opportunities is a concept that centres on moral issues such as the principle of equal rights. The principle of equal rights implies that the needs of each and every child with mental retardation are of equal importance and that these rights must be taken into consideration in planning of educational needs of the child as this ensures that every child is given an equal opportunity to participate actively in the learning process.

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The issues of quality

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The importance of quality in teacher education is well recognized in Nigeria as in all education communities all over the world. Its National Policy on Education affirms that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers (Nigeria, 1977; revised 1981, 2004). In fact nothing is as important to learning as the quality of the learner’s teacher.

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The new legal framework governing educators in South Africa: responses to the need for educational reform in Africa

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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The relationship between distance teacher education, additional language and assessment

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.The issues relating to teacher education, its methods and effectiveness are of utmost importance and cannot be ignored. The implications of teacher education have long term effects and become relevant in the most unexpected situations. The study discussed below focused on additional language (AL) and assessment but the close correlation to teacher education became evident during the data collection. This paper intends to discuss the results of the study as it relates to language, and how language teaching methods and practices might have affected the learning and assessment of the participants and thereby the outcome of the study. The paper will also discuss distance teacher education and continued professional development as a probable variable for improving learning outcome on language acquisition and use.

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The relationship between distance teacher education, additional language and assessment Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.The issues relating to teacher education, its methods and effectiveness are of utmost importance and cannot be ignored. The implications of teacher education have long term effects and become relevant in the most unexpected situations. The study discussed below focused on additional language (AL) and assessment but the close correlation to teacher education became evident during the data collection. This paper intends to discuss the results of the study as it relates to language, and how language teaching methods and practices might have affected the learning and assessment of the participants and thereby the outcome of the study. The paper will also discuss distance teacher education and continued professional development as a probable variable for improving learning outcome on language acquisition and use.

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The role of an external examiner in quality promotion

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.The issues relating to teacher education, its methods and effectiveness are of utmost importance and cannot be ignored. The implications of teacher education have long term effects and become relevant in the most unexpected situations. The study discussed below focused on additional language (AL) and assessment but the close correlation to teacher education became evident during the data collection. This paper intends to discuss the results of the study as it relates to language, and how language teaching methods and practices might have affected the learning and assessment of the participants and thereby the outcome of the study. The paper will also discuss distance teacher education and continued professional development as a probable variable for improving learning outcome on language acquisition and use.

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The status and practice of Life Orientation is critical in assisting students perform well in other courses

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.This research investigated the important role played by the fundamental Life Orientation course which isundertaken by all students in teacher education in assisting themto perform well in other courses thatthey undertake in the institution of Higher learning. The study enquired into the attitudes ofstudents towards Life Orientation. How anything is approached has a bearing on its success and sustainability. Educators of teachers need to be mindful of the fact that whilst students are expected to apply knowledge, skills and values in a way that is meaningful to their own lives, who they are in terms of the way they perceive themselves has a bearing on the successful completion of the task. Cognitive Theory as well as theories of psychosocial development appear to shed light on this assertion. Furthermore, it is important for educatorsof teachers to take into consideration local context while being sensitive to global imperatives. Results revealed that students have a strong sense of self and anything that relates to themselves as individuals when they are stillyoung and before they take into consideration the things that occur in their immediate environment when they are older. It is advisable that policy implementers and stakeholders who interact with studentsshould be mindful of such issues in facilitating the transition of students from university life to the world of work.This impliestransitioning learners from “who” to “what” in the learning process which is a means to an end and not an end in itself as educators try to engage learners in teaching and learning.

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The teaching of values in teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teachers plan lessons and research information needed for effective teaching. What is often forgotten or overlooked is that in the selection of what information to teach they use their own value systems for this selection. What messages this selected information pass on to students go unattended and unevaluated. It is important to note that the process of content and teaching approaches selection includes ways of thinking, warrants of what is valid knowledge to be taught and modes of discourse. It is like there is a prescribed way of thinking that all teachers ought to follow yet this is not the case.

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The usability of computers in teaching and learning at core primary teachers' colleges in Uganda

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.Teacher education in Uganda today provides both pre-service and in-service training through not less than 539 primary school centres and tutors radiating from 23 Primary Teacher Colleges serving all schools in the country (MoES, 2000). Accordingly, the Connectivity for Educators (Connect-ED) Project established computer-assisted teacher training laboratories and Internet Connectivity in four pilot Primary Teacher Colleges in Gulu, Bushenyi and Kampala. The project aimed at providing computer skills training to student teachers, as well as establishing computer laboratories and Internet Connectivity to the eight Core Primary Teachers’ Colleges (PTCs) around the Country; of which Shimoni and Kibuli were accorded first priority. In the interview carried out with Professor Lutalo-Bbosa, the former Vice Chancellor of Kyambogo University, the objective of Connect-ED was to introduce integration of computers into the teaching methods employed in primary schools and provide capacity building to Administrators, Tutors, pre-service and in-service teachers within the PTCs.

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The use of video and multimedia in teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. It is commonly stated that teaching is a profession and trained teachers are professionals. Hurst and Reding (2000) indicate that the noun ‘professional’ means ‘a person who does something with great skill’. Trained teachers should therefore exhibit great skill in teaching. The authors also indicate that the adjective ‘professional’ means ‘worthy of high standards of a profession’. This means that for teachers to be professional, they need to learn what those high standards are and then strive to meet them. Glaser (1993) took these ideas a step further and stated that “getting the job done, even done well, is good enough for nonprofessionals, but continually improving the way the job is done both for themselves and others, is the hall mark of professionals. This should be an apt description for teachers, because as professionals, we should always be looking for better ways to teach. We need to care about doing the best job of teaching our students and making a difference in their lives.

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The “new teacher” in Africa: Concluding remarks

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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Three models of group learning strategies, mathematical ability and gender as determinants of students learning outcomes in mapwork

This study determined the relative effects of three group learning strategies - the Cooperative Learning Strategy (CLS), the Mastery Learning Strategy (MLS), the Integrated Group Learning Strategy (IGLS) (which is the integration of CLS and MLS) and the conventional method - on students’ learning outcomes in mapwork using gender and mathematical ability as moderator variables. A 4x3x2 pretest, posttest, control group quasi-experimental design was adopted in the study. Three hundred and sixty (360) SS II geography students (196 males and 164 females), drawn from 8 public secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis comprised the subjects of the study.

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Three models of group learning strategies, mathematical ability and gender as determinants of students learning outcomes in mapwork

This study determined the relative effects of three group learning strategies - the Cooperative Learning Strategy (CLS), the Mastery Learning Strategy (MLS), the Integrated Group Learning Strategy (IGLS) (which is the integration of CLS and MLS) and the conventional method - on students’ learning outcomes in mapwork using gender and mathematical ability as moderator variables. A 4x3x2 pretest, posttest, control group quasi-experimental design was adopted in the study. Three hundred and sixty (360) SS II geography students (196 males and 164 females), drawn from 8 public secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis comprised the subjects of the study.

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Towards a holistic model for professional development

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. the opportunities offered to educators to develop new knowledge, skills, approaches and methods to improve their effectiveness in their classrooms and organizations” Loucks-Horsley, Hewson, Love and Stiles (1998).

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Transforming teacher education in Nigeria: A case study of comprehensive institutional change at Oro College of Education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Nigeria is in the midst of comprehensive education reform. The introduction of Universal Basic Education and the change in its curriculum towards competency-based learning have a direct impact on the preparation of teachers. The curriculum transformation underway in teacher education is presented through the lens of a case study of institutional transformation at College of Education Oro, in Kwara State, Nigeria.

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Transforming the role of ICT: Implications for teacher preparation in Ghana

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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Uganda Conference Paper

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. This study was designed to investigate the perception of teachers towards teaching large classes as prevalent in Nigerian schools today due to the present social demand for education. The samples used for the study were 300 teachers randomly selected among teachers in Ondo state. The instrument used for this study was tagged “Teaching Large Classes Questionnaire” (TLCQ), this was used for the collection of data, which were analyzed using frequency count, percentages and t- test statistical tools. The findings revealed that the teachers were not favorably disposed to teaching large, poorly resourced classes. The majority were of the view that in such classes, it is difficult to engage in practical work, there was less concentration on the part of the pupil, teaching is teacher – centered, the level of pupil participation is low and there are heavier demands on facilities and instructional materials.

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Understanding experiences of the users of cellphones as a teaching and learning platform: A case study of three African tertiary institutions

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. The African academic mission is to ensure the highest possible quality of education in a changing Africa (Deta conference, 2011). The modern African citizens are born in the advances of digital resources. The African citizens need an optimal access to digital and academic resources and current information to promote effective decision making. Research reveals that almost 99% of student teachers in any given African Teacher Education Institution owns advanced Mobile phones (Kreutzer, 2008), and pedagogical promises of this tool have partially been explored and integrated in the African Teacher Education Sectors. Likewise, Conole (2009) argues that the use of cell phones in the curriculum may transform education by providing a wealth of resources, new forms of communication and virtual learning environments.

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Universities preparing prospective teachers to teach large classes with limited resources – challenges and possibilities

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. As recipients of state funding will need to reconfigure and embraced its role as the foremost provider of teachers • Become responsive towards the urgent educational need of preparing prospective teachers to teach large classes in under resourced schools

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Use of Multimedia in teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. The delivery mode of teaching in the distance learning teacher training program of Makerere University markedly lack use of multimedia in the teaching/learning process. The major technology used is Print technology, yet a well distributed media use should include use of radio, television, computers and mobile phones. A study was conducted to find out the extent to which students, tutors and administrators made use of multimedia to support the students. The results show that inspire of the existence

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Using a palette of learning tools for developing students in an ODL environment

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique.

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Using action research to monitor the quality of facilitating learning

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Challenge for the context of Higher Education (HE) in Mozambique ‐ need to provide more courses, to promote mass education and to transform its teaching practices (teacher centered approaches)

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Using basic tools in MS Word to develop interactive lessons for learner practice: the skill of the ‘new’ African teacher

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. In African classrooms, where available, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s) should change the way children are taught. Instead of learners using computers as part of instruction, teachers resort to teaching about computers, their applications and how to handle them. The productivity side of computer use in the general content area curriculum is neglected or grossly underdeveloped (Moursund, 1995). Educational technologists, describing what learners should know and be able to do with technology, advocate integrating computer skills into content areas, pointing out that information skills can be integrated effectively when the skills directly relate to the content area curriculum and to classroom assignments (Lorenzen, 2003).

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Using basic tools in MS Word to develop interactive lessons for learner practice: the skill of the ‘new’ African teacher Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. In African classrooms, where available, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT’s) should change the way children are taught. Instead of learners using computers as part of instruction, teachers resort to teaching about computers, their applications and how to handle them. The productivity side of computer use in the general content area curriculum is neglected or grossly underdeveloped (Moursund, 1995). Educational technologists, describing what learners should know and be able to do with technology, advocate integrating computer skills into content areas, pointing out that information skills can be integrated effectively when the skills directly relate to the content area curriculum and to classroom assignments (Lorenzen, 2003).

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Using cluster meeting to reduce learner isolation and improve cohort completion rates of the Distance Teacher Upgrading Programme in Malawi

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. A distance education programme must be instituted with an appropriate support system for learners to individually achieve the goals they set prior to enrolling for the programme. This is especially true of a teacher training programme which is often introduced with the intention of training teachers while allowing them to teach at the 3 same time. Such a programme ensures that teacher shortfall and quality in deprived schools are addressed at the same time and avoids the cost of replacing teachers who would have gone on full time education (UNESCO, 2002). Because the training is linked to career progression, it is not surprising that an upgrading programme tends to enjoy high patronage with potential candidates always competing for places to improve their career prospects. The candidates that get into the programme usually have the greatest desire to succeed to move to the next level of their employment ladder. It is, therefore, important to ensure that the learner-support system provided for an ODL teacher training programme maximizes on the number of learners that successfully complete the programme.

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Using cluster meeting to reduce learner isolation and improve cohort completion rates of the Distance Teacher Upgrading Programme in Malawi Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. A distance education programme must be instituted with an appropriate support system for learners to individually achieve the goals they set prior to enrolling for the programme. This is especially true of a teacher training programme which is often introduced with the intention of training teachers while allowing them to teach at the 3 same time. Such a programme ensures that teacher shortfall and quality in deprived schools are addressed at the same time and avoids the cost of replacing teachers who would have gone on full time education (UNESCO, 2002). Because the training is linked to career progression, it is not surprising that an upgrading programme tends to enjoy high patronage with potential candidates always competing for places to improve their career prospects. The candidates that get into the programme usually have the greatest desire to succeed to move to the next level of their employment ladder. It is, therefore, important to ensure that the learner-support system provided for an ODL teacher training programme maximizes on the number of learners that successfully complete the programme.

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Using TESSA to support school-based teacher education

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana.

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Using video technologies in teacher preparation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. In recent times, there has been a lot of emerging ways of delivering education and training to students, particularly, distance education students. The combination of teaching, delivery assessment and communication components that are used in producing effective instructional and support process are evolving. These elements are termed teaching strategy. For example, the contact between Distance Education (DE) institution and students can be made by fax, emails, videoconferencing and teleconferencing and most recently, the internet (online). With videoconferencing, teleconferencing, specific times are agreed with students to get together 2 for effective tutorial work. Assignments are then discussed on regular bases with videoconferencing. Thus, DE has the opportunity/potential to use a resource-based instructional methodology where effectiveness depends a lot on the quality of the resources for learning and the appropriateness of the delivery media. Further, the choice of media in DE has more to do with the nature of the learning task involved than the availability of media or technology.

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Using video technologies in teacher preparation Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. In recent times, there has been a lot of emerging ways of delivering education and training to students, particularly, distance education students. The combination of teaching, delivery assessment and communication components that are used in producing effective instructional and support process are evolving. These elements are termed teaching strategy. For example, the contact between Distance Education (DE) institution and students can be made by fax, emails, videoconferencing and teleconferencing and most recently, the internet (online). With videoconferencing, teleconferencing, specific times are agreed with students to get together 2 for effective tutorial work. Assignments are then discussed on regular bases with videoconferencing. Thus, DE has the opportunity/potential to use a resource-based instructional methodology where effectiveness depends a lot on the quality of the resources for learning and the appropriateness of the delivery media. Further, the choice of media in DE has more to do with the nature of the learning task involved than the availability of media or technology.

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Views of physics teachers on the need to train and retrain in Nigeria

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2007 Conference, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda. Teacher education is an important enterprise because no education can rise above the quality of its teachers .The number of physics teachers in the secondary schools in Nigeria is not as desired .Many schools do not have physics teachers (Omosewo & Salami 2002). For this reasons teacher that were teaching integrated science did not teach the physics aspect of the subject. Therefore very few students offer physics at the senior secondary school level because physics was strange (since they were not taught at the junior secondary school level) to student. Also, teachers that taught physics at the senior secondary school level could not teach some topics well because they to while their colleges/ Universities (Omosewo 2002). One hundred and thirty five physics teachers were sampled in Kwara State on the need for training teachers by giving them questionnaire to fill.

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Web 2.0 tools and critical thinking skills: a study at the Eduardo Mondlane University

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Critical thinking may be positively affected by the application of Web 2.0 tools within the educational context. Recently, many studies indicate that student’s critical thinking abilities can be fostered through the application of Web 2.0 tools. For example, Richardson (2006, quoted in Duffy & Bruns, 2006) believes that blogs, wikis, and other Web 2.0 tools have great potentiality in terms of its use in an educational context. Richardson highlights that such tools can promote critical thinking and analytical thinking and can foster creative and intuitive thinking.

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Web 2.0 tools and critical thinking skills: a study at the Eduardo Mondlane University Presentation

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2011 Conference, in August 2011, Mozambique. Critical thinking may be positively affected by the application of Web 2.0 tools within the educational context. Recently, many studies indicate that student’s critical thinking abilities can be fostered through the application of Web 2.0 tools. For example, Richardson (2006, quoted in Duffy & Bruns, 2006) believes that blogs, wikis, and other Web 2.0 tools have great potentiality in terms of its use in an educational context. Richardson highlights that such tools can promote critical thinking and analytical thinking and can foster creative and intuitive thinking.

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Web 2.0 tools in UEM: An opportunity for the improvement of the teaching and learning process

The impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the society has contributed for the development of initiatives aiming to integrate this technologies in educational scenarios (Coutinho 2009). This carries a new challenge for the academic staff to keep up with the technological evolutions and to find the best way to integrate it in their practices.

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Web 2.0 tools in UEM: An opportunity for the improvement of the teaching and learning process Presentation

The impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the society has contributed for the development of initiatives aiming to integrate this technologies in educational scenarios (Coutinho 2009). This carries a new challenge for the academic staff to keep up with the technological evolutions and to find the best way to integrate it in their practices.

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Written assignment feedback: Its effectiveness in students’ studies – Experiences of the Institute of Distance Learning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Education, whether it is at a distance or not, depends upon two‐way communication. In distance education there is a growing need for, and appreciation of, sustained two‐way communication in the process of analyzing and developing knowledge. Meeting the demands of an educational transaction at a distance is dependent upon communication technologies, which provide frequent and regular interaction between teacher and learner, as well as among learners.

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Written assignment feedback: Its effectiveness in students’ studies – Experiences of the Institute of Distance Learning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Ghana

This paper was presented at the Distance Education and Teacher's Training in Africa (DETA) 2009 Conference, August 2009, Ghana. Education, whether it is at a distance or not, depends upon two‐way communication. In distance education there is a growing need for, and appreciation of, sustained two‐way communication in the process of analyzing and developing knowledge. Meeting the demands of an educational transaction at a distance is dependent upon communication technologies, which provide frequent and regular interaction between teacher and learner, as well as among learners.

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